台灣大百科全書

Daoshi and Fashi Ritual Traditions
道法二門 中文版本

Classification:Religion > Organizations & Schools > Daoism > Daoist Schools
Contributor: Hsieh Tsunghui Bio
This refers to practitioners of both the Daoist “Orthodox Unity School (正一派)” and the Lushan Fajiao (閭山法教) “Sannai School (三奶派).” This became known as the “Daoshi and Fashi ritual traditions” because practitioners of this would set up a “spirit tablet and burning incense for the masters of their Daoist and Fajiao School” using incense pots that are written with the “past teachings and future principles of the leaders,” on the Qian position of the trigram on the altar, and because they would pray for masters from both Schools to protect and guide them during their rituals.

According to investigations, the two lineages of Daoshi and Fashi ritual traditions in Taiwan originated from Zhangzhou (漳州) and other counties near Quangdong (廣東), such as the Zhao’an (詔安) and Pinghe (平和) counties. In Taiwan, the spiritual tablets of the masters is distributed in the “Fulao Ke (福佬客)” (Hakka [客家] People who have been influenced by the Minnan [閩南] and Fujian [福建] people and customs) human settlements such as Taipei County, Taoyuan (桃園) County, Hsinchu (新竹) County, Miaoli (苗栗) County, and Yilan (宜蘭) County in north Taiwan; and in Taichung (台中) County, Changhua (彰化) County, and Yunlin (雲林) County in central Taiwan.

Recitations during rituals and the singing of Daoist songs in the ceremonies adopt a standard pronunciation that is different to the Quanzhou (泉州) accent of the Quan Daoist priests; and the “Zhengyi (正一)” scripture is often used for rituals of repentance. The contents of the scriptures used, and the actual use of the Daoist documents all claim to perform the ritual “in the name of the founder, Celestial Master Zhang (張天師). The Great Master of the Three Heavens and Perfect Sovereign of the Orthodox Oneness,” hence priests of this School do seem to follow the traditional rituals of the Orthodox Unity School.

The identity and actions of Fashi from the Sannai School were recorded in the early Taiwanese local chronicles under names such as the “Kezai Shi (客仔師)” in Chen Menglin’s (陳夢林) Jhuluo County Chronicles: On Social Customs (諸羅縣志‧風俗志), and the “Hongtou Si (紅頭司)” (Hakka Fashi who wore red headdresses) that were recorded in the Zhanghua County Chronicles: On Social Customs (彰化縣志‧風俗志) by the same author. This type of priest dealt with celebratory offerings and not with the merit and release from purgatory funeral ceremonies for the newly deceased. They mainly offer sacrifice for public rituals of universal salvations such as the Zhongyuan ritual of universal salvation (中元普渡) and the end of days ritual of universal salvation (末日普度), and wear red headdresses around their heads, hence they are also commonly known as the “red headed priests (Hongtou Daoshi [紅頭道士]).” These priests usually set up an altar at home, or append themselves to a temple to provide their services to the people, and perform small Daoist rituals and the lesser master rites of the Sannai School. Common Daoist activities performed are Dipper worship (拜斗), appease Taisui (太歲), appease the family spirits, worship the lord of heaven and the one-day three offerings ritual, or a large-scale jian jiao (建醮) ritual offering over five days. They also perform commonly seen lesser master rites such as praying for a child, foetus calming, fertility rituals, discontinuing romantic luck, exorcistic rituals that eliminate disasters, the wealth bringing and luck improving and evil spirit expelling rituals that the red headdress priests are reputed to be adept at in historical records.

Copyright © 2011 Council for Cultural Affairs. All Rights Reserved.  

Chinese Keyword
道派 , 紅頭 , 正一派 , 三奶派

English Keyword
Daoist school , Daoist master who wears red headdress , Orthodox Unity School , School of the Three Matrons , Daoist Master Who WearsRed Headdress

References

  1. Liu, Jihwann. (1967). Tai bei shi song shan qi an jian jiao ji dian─Tai wan qi an jiao ji xi su yan jiu zhi yi [臺北市松山祈安建醮祭典—臺灣祈安醮祭習俗研究之一]. Publications of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, No. 14. : Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica.
  2. Saso, Michael. (Ed.). (1973). zhuang lin xu dao cang [莊林續道藏] (=Supplement to the Taoist Canon of the Zhuangchen and Lin families). Taipei: Cheng Wen Publishing Co., Ltd.
  3. Liu, Jihwann. (1983). Tai wan min jian xin yang lun ji [臺灣民間信仰論集]. Taipei: Linking Books.
  4. Lagerwey, J. (1996). Tai wan bei bu zheng yi pai dao shi pu xi [臺灣北部正一派道士譜系]. (Liling. Xu, Trans.). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore, 103. P.31-47.
  5. Xu, Liling. (1997). Tai wan bei bu hong tou fa shi fa chang bu yun yi shi [臺灣北部紅頭法師法場補運儀式]. Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore, 105. P.1-146.
  6. Lagerwey, J. (1998). Tai wan bei bu zheng yi pai dao shi pu xi (xu pian) [臺灣北部正一派道士譜系(續篇)]. (Liling. Xu, Trans.). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore, 114. P.83-98.
  7. Lee, Fongmao. (1998). Tai wan zhong bu hong tou si yu ke shu ju luo de jiao yi xing shi [臺灣中部紅頭司與客屬聚落的醮儀行事]. Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore, 116.
  8. Lin, Chenyuan. (2007). Min nan ke jia di qu de dao jiao yi shi: San chao jiao ge an [閩南客家地區的道教儀式:三朝醮個案] (= Taoist rituals of the Minnan/Hakka area: A case study of a three-day jiao). Journal of Chinese Ritual, Theatre and Folklore, 158.
  9. Hsieh, Tsunghui. (2009). Tai wan dao fa er men jian jiao wen jian yan jiu: Yi ji long guang yuan tan yi you nian qi chao jiao dian yan fa wei li [臺灣道法二門建醮文檢研究:以基隆廣遠壇乙酉年七朝醮典演法為例] (= A study of the communal Chiao ritual documents of the school of practicing both Daoism and exorcism in Taiwan: A seven-day Chiao ceremony performed by the Keelung Guangyuan altar for Songshan Cihui temple in 2005). Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies, 39 (2).
  10. Hsieh, Tsunghui. (2008). Ji long guang yuan tan pu du ke yi yu wen jian yan jiu [基隆廣遠壇普度科儀與文檢研究]. Min Su Yu Wen Hua, 5. P.25-49.