台灣大百科全書

Yong Ying (Brave Camps)
勇營 中文版本

Classification:History > Sovereignty under Qing Dynasty > Politics / Internal Affairs > Yong Ying
Contributor: Hsu Yuliang Bio
The main military force in the latter stages of the Qing (清) dynasty. Before 1850 (30th year of Daoguang [道光] Emperor), the Yong Ying (勇營, brave camps) were not a standing army, and would only recruit Xiangyong (鄉勇, local soldiers) and join a campaign in the event that the Eight Banners (八旗) of the regular army and Green Standard Army (綠營) troops were insufficient. They would then be disbanded during peacetime. During the reign of the Xianfeng (咸豐) Emperor when the Qing army fought the forces of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (太平天國), two regiments of xiangyongs (鄉勇)-xiangyong (湘勇) and Huaiyong (淮勇, the Xiang army [湘軍] and Huai army [淮軍]) rose to the fore to become a regular army of the Qing. These two armies functioned as the main force in putting down the Taiping rebellion. To acknowledge the change in organization of the Xiangyong, the term “Defense Corps (防軍)” came to be used.

Following the Taiping rebellion in 1865 (4th year of Tongzhi [同治] Emperor) the Qing court authorized the Green Standard Army of each province to select crack troops at their own discretion, and organized a ‘militia’ based on the Xiang and Huai armies. During the Daoguang era, the Taiwan Zhen Zongbingguan (臺灣鎮總兵官, Garrison Commander of Taiwan Zhen) Da Hong’a (達洪阿) had already done this, but it was merely a temporary task force and the underlying systems did not change, being dissolved when Da Hong’a left office. After the establishment of the Lianjun (練軍, militia), the Defense Corps of the latter Qing encompassed the three systems of the Xiang army, Huai army, and militia, led by a Tongling (統領, commander-in-chief) who controlled all the camps; operating underneath him were the Yingguan (營官, camp commanders). Rank and file men were not known as “bing (兵, soldiers)”; instead they were referred to as "yong (勇, braves)," in order to make a distinction between the different Eight Banner and Green Standard Army systems. There were numerous Xiangyong active in every province in the latter Qing period, modeled on the camp structure of the Defense Corps in their training and management. However, these Xiangyong could not be considered Defense Corps in the true sense, as they were not part of the formal military, and thus can only be labeled “Tuyong (土勇, local braves).” A case in the point was the Dong army (棟軍) headed by the Wufeng (霧峰) Lin’s Lin Zhaodong (林朝棟); despite playing a big role in the Shi Jiuduan Incident (施九緞事件) during the Sino-French War, the Dong army was merely a type of Tuyong.

Copyright © 2011 Council for Cultural Affairs. All Rights Reserved.  

Chinese Keyword
湘軍 , 淮軍 , 練軍 , 土勇 , 鄉勇

English Keyword
, Xiangjun , Huaijun (Huai Army) , Militia , Tuyong (Local Braves) , Xiangyong

References

  1. Hsu, Yuliang. (2007). Qing muo tai wan de fang jun [清末臺灣的防軍] (=The defense corps in Taiwan in the late Qing dynasty). Studies on Modern History, 2007(3). P.78-99+159.
  2. Wang, Ermin. (1981). Huai jun zhi [淮軍志]. Academia Sinica Institute of Modern History and Philology special issue, No.22. Taipei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica.
  3. Luo, Ergang. (1997). Wan qing bing zhi,Vol.1: Huai jun zhi [晚清兵志(第一卷):淮軍志]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company.

Extended Reading

  1. Luo, Ergang. (2000). Tai ping tian guo shi [太平天國史]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company.
  2. Ma, Changhua. (Ed.). (1995). Huai xi ren wu lie zhuan: Li hong zhang jia zu cheng yuan, wu zhi [淮系人物列傳:李鴻章家族成員、武職]. Hefei: Huangshan Publishing House.
  3. Pi, Mingyong. (1999). Xiang, Jun [湘軍]. Zhong guo jin dai jun xi cong shu, No.1. Taiyuan: Shanxi People’s Publishing House.
  4. Tian, Xuan. (2000). Huai jun [淮軍]. Zhong guo jin dai jun xi cong shu, No.2. Taiyuan: Shanxi People’s Publishing House.
  5. Li, Yihsien. (2000). Wan qing hou shan zhu bing chu tan [晚清後山駐兵初探]. The Taiwan Folkways, 50(1). P.13-42.